Football supporters: Group identity, perception of in-group and out-group members and pro-group action tendencies

Tomasz Besta, Radosław Kossakowski


A study of 568 football supporters from club communities in Poland examined whether willingness to engage in collective action would be independently predicted by perceived communal relationship with in group members and by perceived disengagement from and lack of acceptance of out-group members. The role of feeling of self-expansion related to participation in sport events was tested as well. The results indicate (a) a positive relationship between collective action and identity fusion; (b) a positive relationship between collective action tendencies and negative perception of out-group members; (c) an interaction effect between perception of out-group members and identity fusion on collective action tendency; (d) a significant mediating effect of self-expansion and group efficacy on the relationship between identity fusion and collective actions.


Group processes; Football supporters; Social identity; Applied psychology

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