Design of an observational instrument for the assessment of the penalty kicks in football and analysis of the obtained results

Gabriel Nadal Comas, Jorge Serna Bardavío, Roman Nuviala Nuviala, David Falcón Miguel


The present study focuses on creating an observational instrument based on observational methodology in order to analyze the direction of the ball in a penalty kicks in football. In addition, thanks to this instrument, 239 penalty kicks were studied in the World Cups of Brazil 2014 and South Africa 2010 plus the America Cup of 2011, 2015, 2016 and the European Championships in 2012 and 2016. A total of 239 penalty kicks were analyzed with the following results: a) a direct connection was established between the player’s supporting foot and the direction of the kick. 77% of right footed players to the right and 98% to the left (p<0,001) and 87.5% of le# footed players to the right and 77.3% to the left (p<0,001); b) statistically significant connections were also observed relating to the opposite arm to the foot in use and the direction of the kick. In right footed players 85% towards the right and 98% towards the left (p<0,001) and in left footed players 86% to the right and 85% to the left (p<0,001). From these results, we can conclude as follows: a) the direction of the supporting foot and the opposite arm to the foot in use is statistically significant for calculating the random possibility of predicting the direction of a penalty kick: b) the opposite arm to the foot in use is visible from the goalkeeper’s position in the moments prior to the actual penalty kick and should, therefore, be included in a training routine.


Goal, Goalkeepers; Releases; Worlds; Prediction

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