Sport emotions: The concepts used in a tri-dimensional model

Alexander T. Latinjak, Victor López-Ros, Raquel Font-Lladó


Dimensional models are used in sport and exercise psychology to organize the complex world of emotions. This study focused on Latinjak’s (2012) model which added time perspective to two traditional dimensions: valence and arousal. The purpose of this study was to determine which concepts would best fit for the eight main emotions described in the model. It was carried out in three steps: (a) finding different concepts for each emotion, (b) choosing the most adequate in each case, and (c) verifying their specificity. Each step used a different sample and appropriate measures to fulfil its purpose. The results of this study showed one concept for each emotion of Latinjak’s (2012) model, and offered evidence in favour of the time perspective. Finally, theoretical and practical implications alongside limitations of this study were discussed.


Affective valance; Time perspective; Physiological arousal; Sport psychology.

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Copyright (c) 2014 Alexander T. Latinjak, Victor López-Ros, Raquel Font-Lladó