Measuring motivation in physical education among Chinese and Spanish adolescents: Comparing the psychometric properties of perceived locus of causality scale

Menglu Yang, Carme Viladrich, Jaume Cruz


The present study aimed to measure motivation in physical education by the Perceived Locus of Causality Scale (PLOC) within a cross-cultural context. A sample of 2,293 adolescents from China (n = 1,287) and Spain (n = 1,006) completed the scales. The results largely supported the reliability and the validity of PLOC in both cultures as well as its cross-cultural equivalence except three problematic items found in the Chinese sample. Moreover, Chinese adolescents scored higher in intrinsic motivation and identified regulation, and lower in introjected regulation, external regulation, and amotivation than Spanish adolescents. These findings supported the universality of motivation structure across different cultures. However, problematic items encountered in Chinese adolescents and differences in motivation suggest that cultural values may cause adolescents to interpret certain motives differently, which highlighted the importance of cultural adaptation when measuring adolescents’ motivation.


Self-determination theory; Motivation; Physical education; Cross-cultural differences; Measurement equivalence

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